Breaking new ground: When does a path become a hiking trail?

Leon McCarron

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Have you ever wondered how a hiking trail came to be? Why this path and not that one? Our featured contributor Leon McCarron joins fellow adventurer Tom Allen, who’s helping to design a new hiking trail that runs the length of the Caucasus.

I had walked many thousands of miles on trails around the world before I really began to ponder the question: How does one build a hiking trail?

What are the fundamental elements? Does it, much like a book, have an author to design the arc of the experience? And what of the practicalities? What’s involved when it comes to boots on the ground?

Trails are something of a curated experience in that sense, but ones that allow ample space for adventure. In the summer of 2017, I joined my friend Tom Allen for a traverse of a remote volcanic mountain range in a country that I’d never been to, but that had been his second home for as long as I’d known him and where he was now creating a long-distance hiking trail. We’d walk and I’d listen and, hopefully, we’d make it to the other side in one piece. That was about as much of the plan as I knew.

It was perfect.

The Republic of Armenia is a relatively new country in political terms at least, formed in its modern incarnation during the collapse of the Soviet Union, yet it has a history that stretches back almost 3,000 years. It’s fiercely mountainous, being part of the Lesser Caucasus range that ripples the landscape from the Black Sea to the river Arax on the Iranian border—and, because of its strategic location as a crossroads between the great empires of old, it’s always been a land littered with pathways that carried so much, both real and intangible.

RELATED: Is walking the most adventurous way to travel?

Ideas and innovations and religion moved from one continent to another, carefully shaping and connecting the worlds of east and west and these notions, along with goods and spices and silks and more, were carried by the constant processions of traders and armies and pilgrims and refugees. It is a place where to walk is to step out upon these layers of the past and, if one is lucky, to revive those notions of old.

For most of the year, the Geghama are inaccessible due to heavy snow, and even now, from our starting point, we can see the glint of winter’s leftovers cresting the mountain tops. Within a day, we’d left behind the signs of civilization (or rather, cultivation) and the first volcanic domes rise up before us, beginning as pimples and growing in the distance to great tumors on the landscape. Tom consults the map and ticks off our progress; from the edge of Lake Sevan to Mount Tas, and from Mount Shishdebe to Lake Akna. We camp on the shoreline of the latter, and bathe in the crisp waters under clears skies.

As we move, swallowed by the mountains, Tom would stop to check his two tracking devices. We follow lines from the Soviet maps that were once jeep tracks taking soldiers to God Knows Where. Now, most are no more than a mere hint, but there’s usually an indentation on the earth or some other marker that could be coupled with a bit of imagination to allow progress in a vaguely pleasing direction.

At other times, when tracks completely fail to transpire on the same spot where they’d been marked over 50 years ago, we look instead for desire lines; the routes of least resistance taken by animals and shepherds in intervening years. In this way, Tom can update the trails that carved their way through the landscape and add a digital layer to those steps that came before.

The central feature of our journey would be an ascent of the highest mountain, Azhdahak, visible for days before we tread upon its flanks. Tom had studied the weather systems here and suggested it was likely to be clear in the mornings, but by afternoon, storm clouds have gathered around the 3,597-meter summit. Sometimes, physics is magical.

RELATED: What can a really long walk in the Alps teach you about life?

That night we camp high, in the folds of the mountain, and listen from inside the tent as heavy rain turns into fat hailstones, like cannonballs pounding our canvas. Then, lightning. Tom chooses this point to tell me he’d heard of a mountain guide who got killed by a strike here. The storm outside is so loud that he has to yell this to me three times before I hear; the impact was keenly felt. Finally, with little else to do, we accept whatever fate may come and fall into an uneasy sleep.

By morning, the clouds have dispersed, and we clamber up over loose rock and through thin air to the very top, from where it feels like the whole world is visible. An iron cross and a lightning rod watch out stoically, and I ponder on how at least one of those had kept us safe the night before.

Walking with him answered many of my questions—a trail is built by walking, of course, but also by planning, and by collaboration with local communities. The TCT, like other trails that I’ve observed in the creation process in the Middle East, puts the highest possible value on local ownership and empowerment, with the idea that a path must be cared for and created by those who live along it—otherwise it will not survive.

This, combined with natural beauty and an indication of feasibility, plus the all-important ingredient of high-adventure, may be the closest thing I’ve yet to the formula for a perfect trail. And I’m pleased to report, as objectively as I can, that the TCT is absolutely on the right path.

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Post Author: martin

Martin is an enthusiastic programmer, a webdeveloper and a young entrepreneur. He is intereted into computers for a long time. In the age of 10 he has programmed his first website and since then he has been working on web technologies until now. He is the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of and Online Magazines. His colleagues appreciate him as a passionate workhorse, a fan of new technologies, an eternal optimist and a dreamer, but especially the soul of the team for whom he can do anything in the world.

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